Synthesis characterization and electrochemical performance of chromium doped tin oxide

David Bahati, Mukka Prasanna, Pulapa Venkata Kanaka Rao


Chromium doped Tin oxide nanoparticles with chromium concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 wt% were synthesized by microwave irradiation technique. Standard characterization techniques were used to understand the characteristics of the nanoparticles obtained. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern depicted the tetragonal crystal structure for Cr doped SnO2 nanoparticles. From the results of crystallite sizes for various doping concentrations, it was observed that doping inhibits the growth of crystalline grains of SnO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images confirmed the surface morphology modifications due to varying doping concentration of Cr, nanocrystallite showed extra agglomerated status with mesoporous structures. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDAX) observations confirmed the doping of chromium ions in SnO2 lattice.  Other standard characterization techniques such as FESEM, TEM, HRTEM, FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis were also carried out for the samples prepared. The electrochemical behavior of the sample was determined using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) by scanning the potential at a rate of 50 mV s‾¹ and for a maximum current of 600 mA carried out on undoped SnO2 and Cr doped SnO2. It was observed that as the wt% of Cr in Cr doped SnO2 increases, the electrochemical performance increases as compared to undoped SnO2. A fairly larger peak current of 15 μA and a larger oxidation peak potential of 0.76 V were observed for 5 wt% Cr doped SnO2.


Tin Oxide (SnO2); Chromium(Cr); Microwave irradiation; XRD; FESEM; HRTEM; FTIR; UV-Vis spectroscopy; Cyclic voltammetry (CV)

Full Text:



Penner RM. Chemical Sensing with Nanowires. Annu Rev Anal Chem. 2012 Jul 19;5(1):461–85.

Kolmakov A, Moskovits M. CHEMICAL SENSING AND CATALYSIS BY ONE-DIMENSIONAL METAL-OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES. Annu Rev Mater Res [Internet]. 2004 Aug 4 [cited 2019 Dec 10];34(1):151–80. Available from:

Devan RS, Patil RA, Lin J-H, Ma Y-R. One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructures: Recent Developments in Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Adv Funct Mater [Internet]. 2012 Aug 21 [cited 2019 Dec 10];22(16):3326–70. Available from:

Afzal A, Cioffi N, Sabbatini L, Torsi L. NO x sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide nanostructures: Progress and perspectives. Vols. 171–172, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 2012. p. 25–42.

Ibupoto ZH, Shah SMUA, Khun K, Willander M. Electrochemical L-Lactic Acid Sensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanorods with Lactate Oxidase. Sensors [Internet]. 2012 Feb 23 [cited 2019 Dec 10];12(3):2456–66. Available from:

Sun C, Mathews N, Zheng M, Sow CH, Wong LH, Mhaisalkar SG. Aligned Tin Oxide Nanonets for High-Performance Transistors. J Phys Chem C [Internet]. 2010 Jan 21 [cited 2019 Dec 10];114(2):1331–6. Available from:

Al-Janaby AZ, Al-Jumaili HS. Structural, Optical and Sensitive Properties of Ag-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films [Internet]. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2016 [cited 2019 Dec 10]. Available from:

Tazikeh S, Akbari A, Talebi A, Talebi E. Synthesis and characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles via the Co-precipitation method. Mater Sci [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 10];32(1):98–101. Available from:

Werner J, Walter A, Rucavado E, Moon SJ, Sacchetto D, Rienaecker M, et al. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells. Appl Phys Lett. 2016 Dec 5;109(23).

Kou L, Li C, Zhang Z, Guo W. Electric-field- and hydrogen-passivation-induced band modulations in armchair ZnO nanoribbons. J Phys Chem C. 2010 Jan 21;114(2):1326–30.

Sinha AK, Manna PK, Pradhan M, Mondal C, Yusuf SM, Pal T. Tin oxide with a p-n heterojunction ensures both UV and visible light photocatalytic activity. RSC Adv. 2014;4(1):208–11.

Venugopal B, Nandan B, Ayyachamy A, Balaji V, Amirthapandian S, Panigrahi BK, et al. Influence of manganese ions in the band gap of tin oxide nanoparticles: Structure, microstructure and optical studies. RSC Adv. 2014;4(12):6141–50.

Banyamin Z, Kelly P, West G, Boardman J. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering. Coatings [Internet]. 2014 Oct 30 [cited 2019 Dec 12];4(4):732–46. Available from:

Agrahari V, Mathpal MC, Kumar S, Kumar M, Agarwal A. Cr modified Raman, optical band gap and magnetic properties of SnO2 nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Electron. 2016 Jun 1;27(6):6020–9.

Tandon B, Yadav A, Khurana D, Reddy P, Santra PK, Nag A. Size-Induced Enhancement of Carrier Density, LSPR Quality Factor, and Carrier Mobility in Cr–Sn Doped In 2 O 3 Nanocrystals. Chem Mater [Internet]. 2017 Nov 14 [cited 2019 Dec 12];29(21):9360–8. Available from:

Subramanyam K, Sreelekha N, Murali G, Reddy DA, Vijayalakshmi RP. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Cr doped SnO2 nanoparticles stabilized with polyethylene glycol. Phys B Condens Matter. 2014 Dec 1;454:86–92.


Krishna M, Komarneni S. Conventional- vs microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of tin oxide, SnO2 nanoparticles. Ceram Int. 2009 Dec;35(8):3375–9.

Lim SP, Huang NM, Lim HN. Solvothermal synthesis of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites for supercapacitor application. Ceram Int. 2013 Aug;39(6):6647–55.

Kim HW, Na HG, Kwon YJ, Kang SY, Choi MS, Bang JH, et al. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Graphene-SnO2 Nanocomposites and Their Applications in Gas Sensors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Sep 20;9(37):31667–82.

Zhong C, Wang J, Chen Z, Liu H. SnO 2 –Graphene Composite Synthesized via an Ultrafast and Environmentally Friendly Microwave Autoclave Method and Its Use as a Superior Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries. J Phys Chem C [Internet]. 2011 Dec 22 [cited 2019 Dec 13];115(50):25115–20. Available from:

Kishore Kumar YB, Suresh Babu G, Uday Bhaskar P, Sundara Raja V. Preparation and characterization of spray-deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells. 2009 Aug;93(8):1230–7.

Azam A, Ahmed F, Arshi N, Chaman M, Naqvi AH. Formation and characterization of ZnO nanopowder synthesized by sol-gel method. J Alloys Compd. 2010 Apr 30;496(1–2):399–402.

Zhu L, Wang H, Wang Y, Lv J, Ma Y, Cui Q, et al. Substitutional alloy of Bi and Te at high pressure. Phys Rev Lett. 2011 Apr 8;106(14).

Ren MX, Li BS, Fu HZ. Formation condition of solid solution type high-entropy alloy. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China (English Ed. 2013 Apr;23(4):991–5.

Wang Z, Huang Y, Yang Y, Wang J, Liu CT. Atomic-size effect and solid solubility of multicomponent alloys. Scr Mater. 2015 Jan 1;94:28–31.

Chrysicopoulou P, Davazoglou D, Trapalis C, Kordas G. Optical properties of very thin (< 100 nm) sol-gel TiO2 films. Thin Solid Films. 1998 Jun 22;323(1–2):188–93.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Open Science Journal (OSJ) is multidisciplinary Open Access journal. We accept scientifically rigorous research, regardless of novelty. OSJ broad scope provides a platform to publish original research in all areas of sciences, including interdisciplinary and replication studies as well as negative results.